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The philosopher's way : a text with readings : thinking critically about profound ideas

Auteur: John Chaffee
Uitgever: Boston : Prentice Hall, ©2011.
Editie/Formaat:   Gedrukt boek : Engels : 3rd edAlle edities en materiaalsoorten bekijken.
Samenvatting:
Book Description: The Philosopher's Way: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas, 3/e, inspires students to think like a philosopher. Integrated readings, interspersed with commentary, guide students in their understanding of the topics, while critical thinking activities challenge students to go beyond their reading and explore the connections philosophy has on their everyday lives. Full-color visuals bring topics  Meer lezen...
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Genre/Vorm: Lehrbuch
Genre: Internetbron
Soort document Boek, Internetbron
Alle auteurs / medewerkers: John Chaffee
ISBN: 9780205776993 020577699X 9780205244270 0205244270
OCLC-nummer: 457158355
Beschrijving: xxv, 598 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm
Inhoud: Preface --
What Is Philosophy?: --
Thinking philosophically about life: --
Why study philosophy?: --
Defining philosophy: --
Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom --
Philosophy begins with wonder --
Philosophy is a dynamic process --
Ultimate aim of philosophy --
Thinking philosophically: becoming a critical thinker: --
Thinking philosophically: what is your philosophy of life? --
Qualities of a critical thinker --
Thinking philosophically: who are your models of critical thinking? --
Process of critical thinking --
Thinking philosophically: applying the critical thinking model --
Understanding arguments: --
Structure of arguments --
Evaluating arguments --
Deductive arguments --
Inductive arguments --
Informal fallacies --
Thinking philosophically: evaluating arguments --
Branches of philosophy: --
Metaphysics --
Thinking philosophically: are you willing to question your beliefs? --
Thinking philosophically: how do you know what is true? --
Epistemology --
Ethics --
Thinking philosophically: do you have a moral philosophy? --
Political and social philosophy --
Aesthetics --
Reading critically: working with primary sources: --
Value of philosophy / Bertrand Russell --
Reading critically: analyzing Russell on the value of philosophy --
Making connections: the search for a meaningful life: --
Thinking philosophically: what do you hope to learn? --
Writing about philosophy: analyzing your beliefs --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
What Is The Philosopher's Way?: --
Socrates and the examined life: --
Socrates: a model for humanity: --
Man of Greece --
Midwife of ideas --
Wisest of men? --
Apology / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing Socrates on wisdom and humility --
Socratic Method: --
Republic / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing a Socratic dialogue --
Socrates central concern: the soul: --
Apology / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing the core teachings of Socrates --
Trial and death of Socrates: --
Apology / Plato --
Thinking philosophically: countering personal attacks --
Reading critically: analyzing Socrates on trial --
Making connections: Socrates' legacy: --
Thinking philosophically: is Socrates relevant today? --
Writing about philosophy: Socratic dialogue --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
Who Are You?: --
Consciousness, identity, and the self --
Know thyself?: --
Thinking philosophically: do you know yourself? --
Soul is immortal: Socrates and Plato: --
Phaedo / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing Socrates on the self --
Chariot analogy / Plato, from Phaedrus --
Reading critically: analyzing the Chariot analogy --
Feminist critique of Plato's view of the self --
Woman as body / Elizabeth V Spelman --
Reading critically: analyzing Spelman's critique of Plato --
Descartes' modern perspective on the self: --
Meditations on first philosophy / Rene Descartes --
Thinking philosophically: are you a seeker after truth? --
Reading critically: analyzing Descartes on the mind/body problem --
Self is consciousness: Locke: --
On personal identity / John Locke --
Thinking philosophically: applying Locke's ideas --
Reading critically analyzing Locke on the conscious self --
There is no self: Hume: --
On personal identity / David Hume --
Reading critically: analyzing Hume on the absence of self --
We construct the self: Kant: --
Prolegomena to any future metaphysics / Immanuel Kant --
Critique of pure reason / Immanuel Kant --
Thinking philosophically: sense, perception, and your self --
Reading critically: analyzing Kant's unity of consciousness --
Self is embodied subjectivity: Husseri and Merleau-Ponty: --
In search of time lost / Marcel Proust --
Thinking philosophically: applying phenomenology --
Within a budding grove / Marcel Proust --
Self is the brain: Materialism: --
On eliminative materialism / Churchland --
Reading critically: analyzing Churchland's materlism --
Buddhist concepts of the self: --
Simile of the chariot / Milindapanha --
Reading critically: analyzing the Buddhist chariot analogy --
Making connections: in search of the self: --
Thinking philosophically: what is your concept of the self? --
Writing about philosophy: defining the self --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
Are you free?: --
Freedom and determinism: --
Are you the master of your fate?: --
Thinking philosophically: what are your assumptions about freedom? --
Determinism: --
System of nature / Baron d'Holbach --
Thinking philosophically: do you chose freely? --
Reading critically: analyzing Baron d'Holbach on the illusion of freedom --
Compatibilism: --
External constraints may limit freedom: Stace --
Religion and the modern mind / W T Stace --
Internal constraints may also limit freedom: Schlick --
Free will is a human creation: Dennett --
Reading critically: evaluating compatibilism --
Indeterminism and libertarianism: --
We live in a world of possibilities: James --
Will to believe / William James --
Reading critically: analyzing James on free will --
We create ourselves through our choices: Sartre --
Existentialism is a humanism / Jean-Paul Sartre --
Reading critically: analyzing Sartre on freedom choice, and responsibility --
Feminist analysis of freedom: --
Autonomy and identity in feminist thinking / Jean Grimshaw --
Reading critically: analyzing Jean Grimshaw on autonomy --
Making connections: creating a synthesis: --
Overcoming limitations to your freedom --
Confronting external constraints --
Confronting internal constraints --
Thinking philosophically: what are the limitations to your freedom? --
Writing about philosophy: understanding personal freedom --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
How Can We Know The Nature Of Reality?: --
Philosophical foundations: --
What is the nature of reality?: --
Thinking philosophically: what is your concept of reality? --
Reality is the eternal realm of the forms: Plato: --
Divided line --
Theory of innate ideas --
Meno / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing Plato's theory of innate ideas --
Path to knowledge of reality: the cave allegory --
Republic / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing Plato's allegory of the cave --
Reality is the natural world: Aristotle: --
Aristotle's two categories: matter and form --
Entelechy --
Four causes --
Metaphysics / Aristotle --
Reading critically: analyzing Aristotle's concept of reality --
Can reality be known? Descartes: --
Meditations on first philosophy / Rene Descartes --
Reading critically: analyzing Descartes' radical doubt --
Making connections: your beliefs about the world: --
Thinking philosophically: evaluating the accuracy of your beliefs --
Writing about philosophy: analyzing philosophical themes in a fictional work --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
What Is Real? What Is True?: --
Further explorations: --
Questioning independent reality: --
Appearance and reality / Bertrand Russell --
Reading critically: how do you know what is real? --
All knowledge comes from experience: Locke: --
Locke's critique of universality --
Essay concerning human understanding / John Locke --
Leibniz's case against Locke --
New essays concerning human understanding / Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz --
Locke's causal theory of perception --
Essay concerning human understanding / John Locke --
Reading critically: analyzing Locke's empirical view --
Reality depends on perception: Berkeley: --
Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge / George Berkeley --
Reading critically: analyzing Berkeley's subjective idealism --
Understanding reality demands skepticism: Hume: --
Enquiry concerning human understanding / David Hume --
Reading critically: analyzing Hume's case for skepticism --
We constitute our world: Kant: --
Prolegomena to any future metaphysics / Immanuel Kant --
Hume's challenge to philosophy --
Kant's solution: transcendental idealism --
Critique of pure reason / Immanuel Kant --
Two realities: phenomenal and noumenal --
Reading critically: analyzing Kant's synthesizing project --
Applying Kant's theory --
Three accounts of the assassination of Malcolm X --
Reading critically: how is knowledge constructed? --
Emotions shape our understanding: Jaggar: --
Love and knowledge: emotion in epistemology / Alison M Jaggar --
Reading critically: analyzing Jaggar on the role of emotions --
Making connections: developing informed beliefs: --
Thinking philosophically: what are the limits of your knowledge? --
Writing about philosophy: constructing knowledge --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research. Is there a spiritual reality?: --
Exploring the philosophy of religion: --
Thinking philosophically about religious beliefs: --
Thinking philosophically: what are your religious beliefs? --
What is religion?: --
Ways of defining religion --
What is religion? / Frederick Streng --
Reading critically: analyzing Streng on definitions of religion --
God is a human projection: Feuerbach --
Essence of Christianity / Ludwig Feuerbach --
Reading critically: analyzing Feuerbach on religion as anthropomorphism --
Religion is vital quest: Nishitani --
Religion and nothingness / Keiji Nishitani --
Reading critically: analyzing Nishitani on the religious quest --
Brief survey of world religions: --
Hinduism --
Buddhism --
Daoism (Taoism) --
Judaism --
Christianity --
Islam --
Indigenous sacred ways --
Thinking philosophically: expanding your religious understanding --
Can we prove the existence of God?: --
Ontological argument --
Ontological argument / Saint Anselm and Gaunilo --
Reading critically: analyzing the ontological argument --
Cosmological argument --
Summa Theologica / Saint Thomas Aquinas --
Reading critically: analyzing the cosmological argument --
Argument from gradations of perfection --
Argument from design --
Natural theology / William Paley --
Reading critically: analyzing the argument from design --
Argument from Morality --
Critique of practical reason / Immanuel Kant --
Reading critically: analyzing the argument from morality --
Problem of evil: --
Philosophy of religion / John Hick --
Reading critically: analyzing Hick on the problem of evil --
Faith and religious experience: --
Religious faith as a wager: Pascal --
Thoughts on religion / Blaise Pascal (Wager) --
Reading critically: analyzing Pascal's Wager --
Religious beliefs sufficient evidence: Clifford --
Ethics of belief / W K Clifford --
Reading critically: analyzing Clifford on the ethics of belief --
Religious belief is legitimate and compelling: James --
Will to believe / William James --
Reading critically: analyzing James on the will to believe --
Subjective knowing: the leap of faith --
Leap of faith and the limits of reason / Soren Kierkegaard --
Concluding unscientific postscript / Soren Kierkegaard --
Reading critically: analyzing Kierkegaard on faith and reason --
Making connections: reflections on the philosophy of religion: --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
Are There Moral Truths?: --
Thinking about ethics: --
Your moral compass: --
Ethics and values --
Thinking philosophically: what are your moral values? --
Thinking philosophically: about ethics --
Thinking philosophically: making moral decisions --
Ethical relativism: --
Ethical subjectivism: each person determines what is morally right --
Thinking philosophically: how subjective are your ethics? --
Cultural relativism: each culture determines what is morally right --
Anthropology and the abnormal / Ruth Benedict --
Thinking philosophically: cultural relativism and your moral perspective --
Reading critically: analyzing Benedict on culture and values --
Ethical absolutism: some moral values are universal: --
Thinking philosophically: do you believe in universal values? --
Concept of morals / W T Stace --
Reading critically: analyzing Stace's critique of ethical relativism --
Egoism as a universal principle: --
Arguments for egoism --
Myth of gyges / Plato (Republic) --
Reading critically: analyzing the myth of gyges --
Virtue of selfishness / Ayn Rand --
Reading critically: analyzing Rand on the virtue of selfishness --
Arguments against egoism --
Egoism and moral skepticism / James Rachels --
Reading critically: analyzing Rachels's critique of egoism --
Religion and universal values: --
Divine command theory --
Thinking philosophically: religion and your ethical values --
Story of Abraham and Isaac, from the bible --
Natural law theory --
Thinking philosophically: do you believe in natural laws? --
Letter from a Birmingham jail / Martin Luther King Jr --
Reading critically: analyzing King on universal values --
Making connections: on becoming an ethical person: --
Disparity between intellect and character / Robert Coles --
Thinking philosophically: can morality be learned in college? --
Writing about philosophy: moral issues in multiculturalism --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
What are right actions?: --
Constructing and ethical theory: --
Expanding your knowledge of moral philosophy: --
Character: virtue ethics: --
Thinking philosophically: what is your moral character? --
Nicomachean ethics / Aristotle --
Reading critically: analyzing Aristotle's virtue ethics --
Maxims: duty to moral laws: --
Fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals / Immanuel Kant --
Thinking philosophically: the categorical imperative and your moral compass --
Fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals / Immanuel Kant --
Reading critically: analyzing Kant on duty and reason --
Consequences: utilitarianism: --
Greatest happiness for the greatest number: Bentham --
Introduction to the principles of morals and legislation / Jeremy Bentham --
Thinking philosophically: applying the hedonistic calculus --
Higher pleasures have greater worth: Mill --
Utilitarianism / John Stuart Mill --
Reading critically: analyzing utilitarianism --
Consider the interests of animals: Singer --
Animal liberation / Peter Singer --
Reading critically: analyzing Singer on animal rights --
Authenticity: existentialist ethics: --
Crowd is untruth: Kierkegaard --
On the dedication to 'that single individual' / Soren Kierkegaard --
Present age / Soren Kierkegaard --
Reading critically: analyzing Kierkegaard on authenticity --
Beyond good and evil: Nietzsche --
Gay science / Friedrich Nietzsche --
Beyond good and evil / Friedrich Nietzsche --
Reading critically: analyzing Nietzsche on morality --
Authenticity and ethical responsibility: Sartre --
Existentialism is a humanism / Jean-Paul Sartre --
Reading critically: analyzing Sartre on moral responsibility --
Our interplay with others defines us: de Beauvoir --
Ethics of ambiguity / Simone de Beauvoir --
Reading critically: analyzing de Beauvoir on moral choices --
Courage is the highest value: Camus --
Myth of Sisyphus / Camus --
Reading critically: analyzing the myth of Sisyphus --
Empathy: the ethics of care: --
Caring: a feminine approach to ethics and moral education / Nel Noddings --
Reading critically: analyzing Noddings on the ethics of care --
Making connections: your moral compass revisited: --
Thinking philosophically: constructing an ethical theory --
Writing about philosophy: analyzing moral choices in a film or novel --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
What Is Social Justice?: --
Creating a just state: --
Elements of a just society: --
Thinking philosophically examining our society --
Classical theories of society: Confucius, Plato, and Aristotle: --
Society should be based on virtue: Confucius --
Reading critically: analyzing Confucius on the social order --
Society should be based on function and harmony: Plato --
Republic / Plato --
Reading critically: analyzing Plato on social harmony --
Society is the natural state of humanity: Aristotle --
Politics / Aristotle --
Reading critically: analyzing Aristotle on community --
Justice depends on a social contract: from Hobbes and Locke to Rawls: --
We need a social contract to coexist: Hobbes --
Leviathan / Thomas Hobbes --
Reading critically: analyzing Hobbes on the social contract --
Social contract protects natural rights: Locke --
Second treatise of civil government / John Locke --
Declaration of independence: a transcription / Thomas Jefferson --
Reading critically: analyzing Locke on natural rights --
State of nature: assumptions and questions --
State of nature is a conceptual tool: Rawls --
Theory of justice / John Rawls --
Thinking philosophically: creating a just society --
Reading critically: analyzing Rawls on justice and equality --
Justice is based on need and ability: Marx and Engels: --
Manifesto of the communist party / Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels --
Reading critically: analyzing Marx and Engels on Social justice --
Justice is what promotes the general welfare: Mill: --
Thinking philosophically: analyzing Mill's concept of justice --
On liberty / John Stuart Mill --
Reading critically: analyzing Mill on liberty --
Justice is what promotes gender equality: Okin: --
Justice, gender, and the family / Susan Moller Okin --
Reading critically: analyzing Okin on gender equality --
Making connections: an ideal society: --
Thinking philosophically: your ideal society --
Writing about philosophy: your ideal society --
Visual summary --
Chapter review --
For further reading, viewing & research --
Credits --
Index.
Verantwoordelijkheid: John Chaffee.

Fragment:

Book Description: The Philosopher's Way: Thinking Critically About Profound Ideas, 3/e, inspires students to think like a philosopher. Integrated readings, interspersed with commentary, guide students in their understanding of the topics, while critical thinking activities challenge students to go beyond their reading and explore the connections philosophy has on their everyday lives. Full-color visuals bring topics to life, and writing examples give students a foundation for their own philosophical exploration.
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